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Differentiating Greek and Roman Architecture – The Best of Both Empires

from : classicalist.com/differentiating-greek-and-roman-architecture-the-best-of-both-empires/

The civilizations of Ancient Rome and Greece have absolute influence on several ancient and modern architectures all over the world. Government buildings, banks, mansions, and courthouses boast of classical styles of architecture that reflect Greco-Roman influence. Famous people build their house with a dash of ancient Roman and Greek architecture, from columns to marble flooring to interior design; all of which reflect luxury and opulence. This kind of influence is proof that the classical architectural styles brought by these two civilizations are still popular despite the modern styles that were developed centuries after they ended.
What defines Greek and Roman Architecture?
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It’s pretty difficult to define Greek and Roman architecture separately because each civilization raised one after the other, but each style of architecture possesses certain characteristics that set them apart from one another. For example, Greek architecture is known for its three column designs namely Corinthian, Doric, and Ionic. Roman architecture is known to follow in the footsteps of Greek architecture but their structures are defined by the use of barrel and groin vaults with concrete hemispherical domes.
Let’s take a look at these two architectural styles separately.
Classic Greek Architecture
The many Greek temples lying around in the region are proof of how elegant Greek architecture is, even though these structures are now in ruins. If you travelled back in time to when they were in their full glory, these temples, market places, monuments, and town buildings would have taken your breath away. The Greek architectural designs are refined in terms of quality and structure, despite its ancient background. For example, the Greeks built temples high up on the ground and sculpted like entities to enhance the proportions of these gigantic buildings. There are three styles of classical Greek architecture, or Orders, known as Corinthian Order, Doric Order, and Ionic Order. These are featured in all of the ancient Greek architectures during the prominent periods of Greek and have influenced other architectural styles throughout the years.
- The Doric Order is a structural design philosophy that includes echinus or circular cushions rising from the top of the columns to the abacus that rests on the lintel. The ancient columns are then defined by the FLUTING or cutting of grooves that run the length of the entire column. There are at least 20 grooves found in every column, and the Temple of Apollo and Parthenon are two popular Greek structures that have Doric style of architecture.
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The Corinthian Order is similar to the Ionic Order and is a style that started out on the proportions of ornate capitals. The capitals were said to be much deeper compared to Ionic and Doric capitals, and they are shaped like a huge bowl or crater. Originally, the Corinthian Order was used for internal designs, but it eventually made its way to being used as external designs. Prominent structures that feature the Corinthian Order include the Temple of Zeus Olympia and the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates in Athens. Ironically, the Romans were the ones who made this Order very popular and they added their own refinements and details to this architectural style.

- The Ionic Order is something similar to the Doric Order in terms of using a curved echinus but is more decorated. The echinus under the Ionic Order is surmounted with a horizontal band that scrolls to either side and forms spirals or volutes, similar to what we would find in a ram’s horn or the shell of a nautilus. The Ionic Order is distinguished through the use of a horizontal spread of flat timber at the top of the column. These columns have narrow flutes and bases with fillet or flat bands between them. The number of flutes range between 20 and 44. The base of an Ionic Order contains two convex mouldings called a torus. The Ionic Order is a dominant architectural style used in the cities of Ionia, Aegean Islands, and Asia Minor.
Classic Roman architecture
Roman architecture was like the brainchild of the different orders of Ancient Greek architecture. Apart from the architectural philosophies, Romans were able to understand the different concepts like the use of hydraulics in the construction of arches. These arches can be found in the eleven aqueducts found all over Rome and the Aqueduct of Segovia. It is also present in bridges like the bridge at Merida. The arches designed by the Romans included the use of concrete and bricks. Another distinguishing factor that separated Roman architecture from Greek architecture is the use of a dome, which paved the way for the creation of vaulted ceilings and large covered public spaces. The dome was the central design of the Roman architecture and it can be seen in popular structures like the Baths of Diocletian, Baths of Caracalla, and Hadrian’s Pantheon in Rome.
More innovations of ancient Roman architecture involved are the creation of housing and public hygiene features like latrines, underfloor heating, piped water, and public and private baths. Another dominant innovation is the construction of the insulae or multi-floored apartment blocks that can cater to large scale accommodations and reach several floors.
What separated the Romans from the Greeks in terms of their architectural designs was the former’s use of concrete. This was a mixture of adhesive and crushed rock that starts off as a liquid but would eventually harden as a solid. This innovative design made it possible for the Romans to create structures in varying shapes, unlike the Greek’s design limitation because of square and rectangular bricks. The Romans were able to make these shapes because they poured concrete into moulds.
Out of the Roman architecture came two additional Greek designs named the Composite and Tuscan. The Composite column is a combination of Ionic volutes in columns and acanthus leaves used in Corinthian columns. The Tuscan is a relatively simple design with rings around its top and base.
The evidence of both Roman and Greek architectural designs are found in the different buildings and structures created throughout their empire’s period and beyond.
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http://www.aoc.gov/capitol-hill/architecture-styles/neoclassical-architecture-capitol-hill

http://classicalist.com/differentiating-greek-and-roman-architecture-the-best-of-both-empires/

http://rome.mrdonn.org/powerpoints-architecture.html

http://www.slideshare.net/gwfreeman/roman-art-9967847

<iframe src="http://www.slideshare.net/slideshow/embed_code/13472515" width="427" height="356" frameborder="0" marginwidth="0" marginheight="0" scrolling="no" style="border:1px solid #CCC;border-width:1px 1px 0;margin-bottom:5px" allowfullscreen webkitallowfullscreen mozallowfullscreen> </iframe> <div style="margin-bottom:5px"> <strong> <a href="http://www.slideshare.net/gwfreeman/classical-art-13472515" title="Classical art" target="_blank">Classical art</a> </strong> from <strong><a href="http://www.slideshare.net/gwfreeman" target="_blank">Gary Freeman</a></strong> </div>

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fascist_architecture
From http://sitemaker.umich.edu/artunderfascism/architecture
Order from Stone:
Nazi Architecture

Hitler used architecture as another avenue to advance the power of the state. Nazi buildings were designed to intimidate and overwhelm. Architects like Albert Speer, Hermann Giesler, and Fritz Todt worked on projects that used stark facades with columns, pilasters, and clean lines on a massive scale to create a new aesthetic. Like the Fascist "New Man," this new building style would exude power and domination. Anyone who ventured into one of these buildings would see in their size the irresistible wealth and power of the Third Reich. Berlin was to become "Germania," a city to dominate the world. It needed monuments. In their greatest flight of fancy, Hitler's architects created a model of this new city, one with public buildings on a scale never seen, to celebrate the power of the German state. Though this massive project never succeeded, many buildings survive that show the unique tendencies of the regime. In Nuremberg, seat of the Nazi party, the rally grounds show the particular style of intimidation architecture found throughout the party's building efforts. Images of the New Reich Chancellery demonstrate deliberate attempts to use architecture to intimidate foreign diplomats. Other buildings not representative of the Nazi style nonetheless reference Nazi aims by glorifying both the Teutonic past and rural culture. Always, Nazi architects worked to ensure that their buildings served the purposes of the regime. Influenced by classical Greece and Rome, they cultivated an aesthetic of order, using minimal decoration and emphasizing straight lines. From the baroque era, they realized the power of buildings as expressions of wealth and power, and they tried to incorporate that expression into their buildings. Nazi architecture served the state by emphasizing its values, demonstrating its power, and creating edifices capable of lasting for centuries.




Hitler's office in the new Reich Chancellerey
Hitler's office in the new Reich Chancellerey

The Propaganda Ministry
The Propaganda Ministry

The Zeppelintribune in the late 1930s
The Zeppelintribune in the late 1930s

Hitler's Office in the New Reich Chancellery, Berlin
The Propaganda Ministry, Berlin
Albert Speer's Zeppelintribune, Nuremberg

What the Nazis likedHitler, as a trained artist, was well-versed in the history of architecture. In the Nazi's quest for an "orderly" aesthetic, much attention was paid to the classical buildings of Greece and Rome. It is easy to see the similarities between Albert Speer's Zeppelintribune, shown above right, and the Pergamon Altar of Zeus housed in the Berlin Pergamon museum:
The Pergamon Altar of Zeus
The Pergamon Altar of Zeus
The Pergamon Altar to Zeus

In fact, Speer himself stated that the Tribune was based on this Pergamon monument (Scobie 87). There are also noticeable similarities between the Colosseum in Rome and the Olympiastadion in Berlin. In particular, the two buildings share a stratified system of pillars and arches. However, the stadium differs from the Colosseum in its lack of curves or circular arches. Olympiastadion's exterior is flat, and relies on rectangles formed from strong horizontal and vertical lines to achieve its clean, orderly effect. Further, the stadium exterior is bare: there is no decoration of any kind, only lines. These preferences for strong lines and bare exteriors are a common feature of Nazi buildings, especially those designed by Albert Speer, and marks them as distinct from the classical structures that influenced them, Classical buildings were heavily decorated, sometimes almost entirely covered with statues. Nazi buildings are striking for their almost total lack of decoration.
Olympiastadion, Berlin 1936
Olympiastadion, Berlin 1936
The Colosseum, Rome
The Colosseum, Rome
The Olympic Stadium, Berlin
The Colosseum, Rome



Hitler himself was as a young man first impresssed with the highly wrought, ornate, neo-Baroque style found in many Habsburg-era public buildings. Even then, he felt that the key qualification for an effective public building was that it expressed the strength of its owner. These buildings, with their excessive numbers of pilasters, porticos, columns, arches, and pediments, manifested the wealth and power of the German and Habsburg states. While these highly-decorated buildings are markedly different from those designed during Hitler's reign, they possess symmetry, a formal element of design that both Speer and Hitler believed was essential to creating order. The grand Berlinerdom exudes wealth, with decoration in every corner. According to Hitler, the cathedral,though too small, was "suitably impressive." (Taylor Illustration 5) The long arcades of the New Hofsburg and the Museum of Fine Arts, both in Vienna, hint at the colonnades and grand entrances found in later buildings, especially Speer's New Reich Chancellery.
The Museum of Fine Arts, Vienna
The Museum of Fine Arts, Vienna
New Hofburg jpg
New Hofburg jpg

The Museum of Fine Arts, Vienna
The New Hofsburg, Vienna
Detail of the Berlin Protestant Cathedral (Berlinerdom)
Detail of the Berlin Protestant Cathedral (Berlinerdom)
berlin_protestant_cathedral.jpg
berlin_protestant_cathedral.jpg
Detail of the Berlinerdom
The Berlinerdom as it looked in the 1930s


What they Built
Perhaps the most archetypical of Nazi buildings was the New Reich Chancellery in Berlin. The building housed administrative offices for senior officials of every branch of the Nazi regime. This building, designed by Albert Speer, was the nerve center of the government. Speer and Hitler agreed that this building needed to be impressive and intimidating, and wanted it to express Nazi ideals of order and strength. The Chancellery, actually an extension to the Kaiser-era Reichskanzlei, displayed all the features that have since come to be associated with the Nazi architectural style. The Voss-strasse entrance, seen below, used high columns and massive doors (topped with an eagle) to create an awe-inspiring entrance to the seat of Nazi power. (Speer Architecture). The long facade, noticeably lacks decoration. There are no columns or statues, only rows of windows, evenly aligned. These parallel rows, with small stone ridges running along them, emphasize the formal element of line. There is nothing exciting happening on this facade, no writhing sculptures or twisting baroque decorations. Instead, Speer's design focuses on line. Nothing pushes against the lines and nothing curves. There is no opposition in row after row of horizontal lines, only order. Speer's design reinforces the Nazi ideal of order, leaving no space for dissent. Everything is totally controlled.
reichkanzlei_voss-strasse.jpg
reichkanzlei_voss-strasse.jpg

The New Reich Chancellery


Inside the Chancellery, the emphasis on order is combined with an increased sense of grandeur. In the middle of the building was Speer's Ehrenplatz, or court of honor. This courtyard existed solely to make the Chancellery a more intimidating place for foreign diplomats. With its stark facade and massive scale, the courtyard could do little else. It was entirely symmetrical, and though it incorporated round columns, the emphasis was again on line and symmetry. Even the sculptures, "Army" and "Party," by Arnold Breker, posed stiffly and oppositely, so that their forms would not disrupt either symmetry or line.
das_ehrenplatz.jpg
das_ehrenplatz.jpg

ehrenplatz_entrance.jpg
ehrenplatz_entrance.jpg

The Ehrenplatz inside the Chancellery
The entrance to the mosaic hall, sculpture by Arno Breker

Beyond this courtyard were the mosaic hall, rotunda, and marble gallery. These led to Hitler's office, a well-lit, well-furnished, and suitably massive room. Importantly, it was larger than Mussolini's. Hitler liked it very much, though he apparently used it infrequently (Lehrer 75).
mosaic_hall.jpg
mosaic_hall.jpg

rotunda.jpg
rotunda.jpg

Marble Gallery .jpg
Marble Gallery .jpg

hitler's office jpg
hitler's office jpg

The Mosaic Hall
The Rotunda
The Marble Gallery
Hitler's Office
The effect was overwhelming. A visitor to Hitler's office arrived at the Chancellery to find a block-long building (1,400 foot), climbed up the steps, entered the Ehrenplatz, traversed it and climbed up more stairs, entered a tiny reception room which opened into the mosaic hall, walked down that, entered the rotunda, then the Marble Gallery, in the middle of which they found Hitler's office. The goal of this journey? "The diplomats sitting in front of me . . . [will] learn to shiver and shake," said Hitler (Lehrer 75).

Encouraging the Volk
The Nazis glorified the rural lifestyle and Germany's Teutonic past. In builidngs not intended to be part of diplomatic life, they imitated traditional German dwellings. The Hermann Goering Youth Home and Speer's West front headquarters both imitate this traditional style. The Tannenberg Memorial draws inspiration from the castles of the medieval Germany's Hohenzollern era and combines it with the new Nazi aesthetic of clean lines and stark, blank facades. This style echoes the glory of German conquerers like Barbarossa, and reminds the Volk of their history of greatness.
goering_jugnedheim_melle.jpg
goering_jugnedheim_melle.jpg

tannenberg_memorial.jpg
tannenberg_memorial.jpg

west_front_hauptquartier.jpg
west_front_hauptquartier.jpg

The Hermann Goering Youth Home, Melle
The Tannenberg Memorial
West Front Headquarters
Creating Mass Experiences
As part of their campaign to unify the German people behind Nazi ideals, Hitler enouraged his architects, especially Albert Speer, to create places for Germans to have what he termed "mass experiences." To do this, they created assembly halls, stadia, and assembly grounds where thousands could gather to display their patriotism and be edified by the speeches of party leaders. The most significant of these places was the Zeppelin Field at Nuremburg, where the Nazi Party held annual rallies celebrating the anniversaries of its formation in 1920 and the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch. The Zeppelintribune was the centerpiece of the Nuremburg party monuments. As discussed above, it incorporated classical elements, but modified them to emphasize line, cleanliness, and order. From this building, Hitler and other party leaders gave speeches to assemblies of tens of thousands of germans. The most effective part of this assembly grounds was not the building, but the light. Speer surrounded the assembly area with hundreds of spotlights pointed skywards. The effect was to create a "cathedral of light," a Lichtdom, and its impact was tremendous.
lichtdom.jpg
lichtdom.jpg

The Zeppelin field Lichtdom
zeppelintribune_beim_nacht.jpg
zeppelintribune_beim_nacht.jpg
The Zeppelintribune during a nighttime rally

The rally grounds at Nuremberg also included the Luitpold Arena, a space used for rallies of as many as 150,000 SS and SA men. The buildings here also show the Nazi emphasis on order, with stark facades and straight lines. At one edge of the arena is the Ehrenhalle, a monument to Nazi war dead. The Ehrenhalle is just one example of the thousands of memorials built by the Nazis in an effort to inspire the German people to greater effort in the war.
Luitpold facade.jpg
Luitpold facade.jpg

luitpold granstands and grounds.jpg
luitpold granstands and grounds.jpg

ehrenhalle_nuremberg_2006.jpg
ehrenhalle_nuremberg_2006.jpg

Luitpold Hall, at one edge of the arena
The grandstands and grounds of Luitpold Arena during a rally
The Ehrenhalle
The New Germany
Hitler and Speer together planned one of the greatest undertakings ever conceived. To create a "thousand year Reich," they devised monuments on a massive scale, and planned out new cities built more around the need to glorify the state than to accomodate a populace. Munich, the site of the Beer Hall Putsch, was one of the cities they planned to rebuild, and there they were to put up grand edifices glorifying the party. The whole city would revolve around a single grand avenue bounded on one end by a huge assembly hall and on the other by a bulky obelisk. This road would be used for ceremonial purposes--parades and rallies. The project would be expensive, the size of the monuments ensured that, but costs were to be kept down through the use of slave labor (Scobie 130). While this project was itself startling for its scale, it was nothing compared to their plans for Berlin.
ost-west_achse_munich.jpg
ost-west_achse_munich.jpg

The planned main avenue in Munich, with Hermann Giesler's train station dome in the background and obelisk in the foreground
Berlin was to be the capital of the Nazis' empire, and as such, needed to exude the power, domination, and superiority of the Nazi party. Invoking images of the Roman empire, the remade Berlin would be called Germania, the old Roman name for Germany. The city would change shape radically, with a tripled population and thousands of new public buildings. Speer planned to create a new city center surrounded by public housing and government facilities. This new center, like Munich, would revolve around a long, wide, single avenue that stretched on for miles. While the road, which lacked crosstreets, was totally impractical, this mattered little to Hitler and Speer, who saw the project purely from an ideological perspective. The broad street was a tool for propaganda, a paradegrounds. Careful urban planning was far less important than ensuring ideological compliance. This was a "highly politicized approach to city building . . . [in] conflict with conventional views of both function and aesthetics" (Helmer 3). The conflicts were never satisfactorily resolved, and Stephen Helmer rightly described the whole project as "generally inept" (Helmer 3).
The great buildings of the new Berlin were to be of incredible size. The grotesque Great Hall (Volkshalle) seen below was to hold 180,000 people, its dome rose 290 meters into the air (951 feet), had a diameter of 250 meters, and sat atop a granite podium 315 meters (1033 feet) square (Scobie 112). It was topped with an imperial German eagle clutching a globe perched on a gigantic lantern. On a similarly massive scale was the triumphal arch in the center of the avenue. It was so large that the plan to build it collapsed when engineers realized it was so heavy that it would sink into the earth.
nord-sud_achse_berlin.jpg
nord-sud_achse_berlin.jpg

grosse_hall_front.jpg
grosse_hall_front.jpg

Speer's model of the planned North-South avenue in the new Berlin
To the North is the Great Hall, in the middle is the triumphal arch, at the Southern edge is the Hall of the German Soldier
The Volkshalle from the front

grosse_hall_closeup.jpg
grosse_hall_closeup.jpg

A closeup of the Volkshalle showing its preposterous size
Even more so than in Munich, this project would have been expensive. The Nazis were creating not just a new city, but a monumental one, with buildings so massive as to be beyond belief. Speer estimated that the total cost would have been between 64 and 96 billion dollars at a rate of 8 billion dollars per year (Helmer 61). Despite the cost, Hitler was intent on seeing the project completed, to the point that he continued to divert men and material to it well into the war (Helmer 61). Germania represented the ultimate triumph of ideology in architecture. Integral to the grandiose plans were features designed to enable mass experiences and display the might of the Third Reich. These concerns far outweighed any issues of practicality.
Speer and Hitler both subscribed to a "theory of ruin value" (Scobie 113). They intended that their buildings would last for centuries, and were accordingly to be built mostly of rock and other very durable materials. In this desire for size and durability, and the supremacy of ideological concerns over function, it is clear that the Nazis saw architecture as a key tool in the creation of their thousand-year Reich. With Germania, Hitler wanted to create edifices capable of sustaining the German empire by themselves. Obviously, this was a ridiculous scheme, a fact that explains why these outrageous structures could ever have been taken seriously.
Conclusion
The Nazis attempted to control every aspect of Germans' lives; architecture played a key role in this. The order and plainness of Nazi facades reflected the order idealized by Nazi theorists. Places designed for mass community experiences built unity around the party. Buildings reflecting rural and Teutonic pasts emphasized the Nazis' glorification of those times. The same aspects of Nazi buildings intended to impress foreign diplomats served double duty by expressing the power of the Nazi party to everyone who passed by. Hitler and Speer believed that architecture had the power to profoundly infuence peoples's thoughts and actions. In their delusional plans for Germania, they showed explicitly that architecture was a tool of the state. It would be used to promote ideology, even at the expense of livability. Hitler wanted buildings to be "the word in stone," durable, visible representations of Nazi ideals. Like all other forms of art during the Nazi regime, architecture was a tool of the state.



Bibliography

Helmer, Stephen D. Hitler's Berlin: The Speer Plans for Reshaping the Central City. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1980.


Lehrer, Steven. The Reich Chancellery and Führerbunker Complex: An Illustrated History of the Seat of the Nazi Regime. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland, 2006.


Rasp, Hans Peter. Eine Stadt für tausend Jahre: München—Bauten und Projekte für die Haupstadt der Bewegung [A city for the millennium: Munich—buildings and projects for the capitol of the movement]. Munich: Süddeutscher Verlag, 1981.


Rosenfeld, Gavriel D. Munich and Memory: Architecture, Monuments, and the Legacy of the Third Reich. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000.


Scobie, Alex. Hitler's State Architecture: The Impact of Classical Antiquity. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990.


Speer, Albert. Architecture, 1932-1942. Edited by Leon Krier. With contributions by Lars Olaf Larsson. Brussels: Archives d'Architecture Moderne,1985.


Sudjic, Deyan. The Edifice Complex: How the Rich and Powerful Shape the World. London: Penguin Books, Allen Lane, 2005.


Taylor, Robert R. The Word in Stone: The Role of Architecture in the National Socialist Ideology. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1974.



Photo credits
Photo 1: Geoff Walden The Reich Propaganda Ministry, designed by Albert Speer <http://www.thirdreichruins.com/PropagandaMinsGT.jpg>
Photo 2: Geoff Walden, The Zeppelintribune, Nuremberg, designed by Albert Speer <http://www.thirdreichruins.com/zepptribak38.jpg>
Photo 3: Courtesy of Calvin College, Hitler's Office in Der Neue Reichskanzellerei, designed by Albert Speer <http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/images/rk/rk3.jpg>
Photo 4: G. Ray Thompson, The Pergamon Altar of Zeus <http://www.salisbury.edu/modlang/RomanGermany/images/Pergamon_Alt_of_Zeus.jpg>
Photo 5: Wolfgang Schäche, Norbert Szymanski Das Reichssportfeld Berlin - Brandenburg: be.bra - Verlag 2001 <http://iblalt.ibl.uni-stuttgart.de/aktuell/exkursionen/berlin2002/ps-bericht/img/bericht-stadion/bild04.jpg>
Photo 6: Leo Curran, Maecenas: Images of Ancient Greece and Rome (c) 1997 <http://library.thinkquest.org/CR0210200/ancient_rome/colosseum2.jpg>
Photo 7: Andrew Boss, Art History Museum, Vienna, 2007. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:IMG_0089_-_Wien_-_Kunsthistorisches_Museum.JPG>
Photo 8: Peter Gerstbach, The New Hofsburg, 2004. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Wien_Hofburg_Neue_Burg_Heldenplatz.jpg>
Photo 9: Andreas Steinhoff, View of the Berliner Dom. (c) 2005 <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Image:Berliner_Dom_-_closeup_view.jpg>
Photo 10: The Berlinerdom, ca. 1930. From Taylor, Robert R. The Word in Stone: The Role of Architecture in the National Socialist Ideology. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1974.
Photo 11: The New Reich Chancellery. From Scobie, Alex. Hitler's State Architecture: The Impact of Classical Antiquity. University Park: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1990.
Photo 12: The Chancellery Ehrenplatz. From Speer, Albert. Architecture, 1932-1942. Edited by Leon Krier. With contributions by Lars Olaf Larsson. Brussels: Archives d'Architecture Moderne,1985.
Photo 13: Ehrenplatz entrance. Ibid.
Photo 14: Chancellery mosaic hall. Ibid.
Photo 15: Chancellery rotunda. Ibid.
Photo 16: Courtesy of Calvin College, Chancellery marble gallery, designed by Albert Speer <http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/images/rk/rk4.jpg>
Photo 17: Op. cit. Hitler's Office, Calvin
Photo 18: Hermann Goering Youth Home, Melle. From Taylor, Robert R. The Word in Stone: The Role of Architecture in the National Socialist Ideology. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1974.
Photo 19: Tannenberg Memorial. Ibid.
Photo 20: West Front Headquarters. Ibid.
Photo 21: Geoff Walden, The Zeppelinfeld Lichtdom, Nuremberg, designed by Albert Speer, <http://www.thirdreichruins.com/Lichtdom.jpg>
Photo 22: The Zeppelintribune during a nighttime rally. From Speer, Albert. Architecture, 1932-1942. Edited by Leon Krier. With contributions by Lars Olaf Larsson. Brussels: Archives d'Architecture Moderne,1985.
Photo 23: Geoff Walden, Luitpoldhalle, Nuremberg, <http://www.thirdreichruins.com/luitpoldhallerittich.jpg>
Photo 24: Geoff Walden, Luitpold Arena, Nuremberg, <http://www.thirdreichruins.com/LuitpoldRuehle38.jpg>
Photo 25: Magnus Gertkemper, Ehrenhalle at Luitpoldhain, Nuremberg, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Ehrenhalle_nuremberg_2006.jpg>
Photo 26: Ost-West Achse, Munich. From Rasp, Hans Peter. Eine Stadt für tausend Jahre: München—Bauten und Projekte für die Haupstadt der Bewegung [A city for the millennium: Munich—buildings and projects for the capitol of the movement]. Munich: Süddeutscher Verlag, 1981.
Photo 27: Nord-Sud Achse, Berlin. From Speer, Albert. Architecture, 1932-1942. Edited by Leon Krier. With contributions by Lars Olaf Larsson. Brussels: Archives d'Architecture Moderne,1985.
Photo 29: Front view of the Kongresshalle. Ibid.
Photo 30: Closeup view of the Kongresshalle. Ibid.
_


Roman Power / Roman Architecture

Many European cities still bear reminders of the power of ancient Rome, and throughout the western world the influence of Roman power is still manifest. Architecture was crucial to the success of Rome. Both formal architecture like temples and basilicas and in its utilitarian buildings like bridges and aqueducts played important roles in unifying the empire. The construction of a roads with bridges helped communication across the far flung empire. external image pont_du_gard0.jpgAqueducts like the so-called Pont du Gard enabled the Romans to provide adequate water supply to its cities. City walls like the one in Autun in central France protected the Roman cities. Cities provided a network of administrative centers and acted as visible symbols of power throughout the Empire. Many European cities and towns, most notably London and Paris, were founded by the Romans.
external image trajan_basilica0.jpgThe buildings in these cities directly and indirectly served Roman power. A building type known as the basilica served administrative functions. The basilica acted like a town hall or court house in American cities. The so-called Basilica Ulpia constructed by the Emperor Trajan at the beginning of the second century AD can be used to exemplify this category of building. A characteristic element of these basilicas was a projection called an apse which served as the seat of the magistrate responsible for dispensing the law.external image rossano_pilate0.jpg Accompanying the magistrate would be an image of the Emperor, the source of the law. A sixth century illustration of Christ being judged shows the seated Pontius Pilate flanked by images presumably of the emperor. The semi-circular line above the scene is best explained by seeing this as an echo of the form of the apse. For a citizen of the empire the basilica in a Roman city conveyed the idea of Roman authority. The associations with authority was an important rationale for the use of the basilica type as the standard form of the Christian church from the time of the Emperor Constantine.

external image exterior0.jpgMany European cities still have amphitheaters that served as arenas in which the Roman staged spectacles that entertained the population. Gladiatorial contests and even sea battles were staged that imitated great Roman military victories. The most famous and grandest amphitheater was the so-called Colosseum that was begun by the Emperor Vespasian in about 72 AD. It was built on the site of a garden that had been part of the lavish palace the Emperor Nero had created in the center of Rome. The building of the Colosseum was clearly a political statement on the part of Vespasian. It conveyed to the Roman people the overthrow of the hated Nero and Vespasian's interest in appealing to the broad mass of the Roman people.
external image titus_arch0.jpgTriumphal Arches like the Arch of Titus (c. 81 AD, Rome (left)) or the Arch of Trajan (114-117 AD, Beneventoexternal image arch_benevent0.jpg (right)) were constructed by Emperors in Rome and its major cities to commemorate great military triumphs. They thus gave clear testament to the great military power of Rome.
external image maisoncarree0.jpgThe foundation of temples was particularly important to Emperors. Religion and politics were very much allied in the Roman world. The public cults celebrated outside these temples were a significant way the population attested to their membership to the community and to the Empire. The building of a temple by an emperor was a clear testament of his pietas, or his dedication to the traditional customs of Roman society. The Maison Carrée from the southern French town of Nîmes is a particularly well-preserved example of a Roman Temple. Roman temples, while related to the Greek temple form in general design and use of the Classical orders, represent a very defined category of temple form. The distinctive elements of being raised on a podium, having a front staircase, and having the columns along the sides being attached or engaged (pseudo-peripteral) allow for the easy identification of a Roman temple. For a Roman citizen from Syria to England, the appearance of this form of temple and the cult practices associated with it provided a sense of membership in the empire.
Basilicas and temples regularly appeared in public squares or fora (forum sing.) in the center of cities. Considering the compact nature of Roman cities, the large amounts of space dedicated to fora were a testament to imperial authority. Large and small cities throughout the empire had fora at their core. The remains of Pompeii reveal a forum with temple and basilica. external image trajan_forum10.jpgThe external image trajan_forum20.jpgmost famous were the so-called Imperial Fora in Rome itself. The largest of these was the Forum of Trajan. The use of axial planning is a characteristic of Roman planning. It created a clear sense of order and focus to a building complex. Along the central axis of the Forum of Trajan are a series of monuments dedicated to the role of Trajan as imperator or military leader. You entered the forum through a triumphal arch dedicated to Trajan's campaigns in Dacia, while in the center of the large courtyard appeared an equestrian statue of Trajan. The central axis is crossed at right angles by the so-called Basilica Ulpia. Beyond this appeared a small courtyard flanked by two libraries, one for Greek texts and the other for Latin texts. external image trajan_column0.jpgAt the center of the courtyard appeared the famous Column of Trajan decorated by a helical band ofexternal image forum_augustus_recon0.jpg relief sculptures illustrating Trajan's campaigns in Dacia. Trajan was originally buried in the base of this column, and apparently after his death, a statue of him was placed at the top of the column. The building complex was completed by a temple dedicated to the Divine Trajan by his successor Hadrian. The use of hemicycles flanking the courtyard was clearly done in emulation of the adjacent Forum of Augustus. This borrowing clearly connects Trajan to his revered predecessor at the same time the grander scale of Trajan's complex would not have been missed by the Roman audience.
Analysis of this early second century building complex demonstrates how the organization of the space and the disposition of the buildings create almost a symbolic map of Roman power. The constituent parts of the complex relate to the major facets of Roman life. The basilica with its apses allude to Roman law; the libraries reflect the authority of classical literature and culture; and the temple connects to the role of religion in public life. Even the markets added by Trajan on the adjacent hill are a clear testament to the role of the emperor as a provider for the Roman populace. At the very center is the imperial axis with images of Trajan as military leader.

Influence of Roman Architecture on Western Architecture
external image arc_de_triomphe0.jpgEchoes of the tradition of the Roman Empire are found in cities throughout the western world. Nations and leaders to give visual testament to their authority and power have emulated the distinct forms of Roman architecture. Particularly good examples can be found in Paris. external image colonne_vendome0.jpgAfter Napoleon was crowned emperor in 1804, he set out to make Paris a new Rome. The Arc de Triomphe, commissioned by Napoleon in 1806 but not completed until 1836, is the most famous example of the French borrowing of Roman formulas. external image trajan_column0.jpgFor the Place Vendôme in Paris, Napoleon commissioned a monumental free-standing column that was directly based on the Column of Trajan from the early second century. external image colonne_vendome_det_Nap0.jpgThe Vendôme column is topped by a bronze statue of Napoleon dressed in the style of a Roman Emperor, external image trajan_chieftain0.jpglike Trajan on his column. Napoleon, standing in the classical contrapposto stance, is shown holding an orb topped by a Nike or Victory figure. The Laurel wreath worn by Napoleon signifies that he is a conquering Emperor. external image madeleine0.jpgNapoleon decided to build a Temple of Glory to his Army. The result was what has now become the church of the Madeleine. The architect Pierre-Alexandre Vignon clearly based his building on the distinct form of the Roman Temple.

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The tradition of Roman architecture has had an important influence on American architecture. For example, many courthouses throughout America can be seen to be based on Roman architecture. external image supreme_court0.jpgA particularly striking example is the U.S. Supreme Court building in Washingon. Designed by Cass Gilbert and completed in 1935, the core of the building can be seen to be directly based on the Roman Temple type including the characteristics of being raised on a podium and approached by a formal front staircase. Like Roman temples, the free-standing columns only appear on the front of the Supreme Court building. Like many of the other major public buildings in Washington, the exterior of the Supreme Court is dressed in white marble. The choice of marble was deliberate to echo the authority of Greek and Roman formal architecture. The biography of Augustus describes how when Augustus transformed Rome from a city of brick to a city of marble. The decision to base courthouse designs in America on Roman temples is understandable when it is remembered that our legal system traces its authority back to the tradition of Roman law. Latin is still the language of legal authority.
external image washington_sq_arch0.jpgMonuments directly derived from Roman forms embellish many American cities. For example, in New York City there is the Washington Square Arch derived from the tradition of Roman Triumphal Arches. external image washington_mon_balto0.jpgBaltimore's Washington Monument was clearly based on the form of the Column of Trajan. Consider the prominent position in American cities given to equestrian statues of great Revolutionary or Civil War generals.

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external image dc_mall_aerial0.jpgWhen l'Enfant laid out the plans for Washington, D.C., external image dc_mall_tourist_map0.gifhe clearly based his plans on Roman planning. The Mall with its axial planning that leads from the Capitol building down through the Washington Monument and Lincoln Memorial is clearly based on the design of Roman fora. Journal Assignment: Compare and contrast the plan of the Mall with the forum of Trajan discussed above. Note what is included and also what is excluded from the Mall. external image empire_plaza0.jpgThe Rockefeller orexternal image empire_plaza20.jpg Empire Plaza in Albany likewise reflects the same tradition of architecture.

The Pantheon of Hadrian and Its Progeny
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The Emperor Hadrian who reigned from 117-138 AD was responsible for the Pantheon, one of the most influential buildings in western architecture. In what has been called an architectural revolution, the architect's of Hadrian transformed the traditional Roman temple plan into a centrally plan structure employing vaulted architecture and concrete as well as more traditional building materials. It best exemplifies the importance of space in Roman architecture. Hadrian, who was strongly influenced by Greek culture, dedicated the temple to "All Gods" using a Greek (Pan=All; Theon: Gods) rather than Latin name. With its hemispherical dome and orderly division of the interior walls into different levels, the Pantheon becomes an architectural embodiment of the Greek idea of cosmos. The dome with its central oculus and original bronze rosettes in the coffers was understood as the vault of heaven. The universal aspects of this design and dedication appealed to Hadrian's conception of the Empire as embracing all the lands under the heavens.
William L. MacDonald in his book on the Pantheon has written:

Hadrian's Pantheon is one of the grand architectural creations of all time: original, utterly bold, many-layered in associations and meaning, the container of a kind of immanent universality. It speaks of an even wider world than that of imperial Rome, and has left its stamp upon architecture more than any other building. Its message, compounded of mystery and fact, of stasis and mutability, of earth and that above, pulses through the architecture of western man [sic]; its progeny, in both shape and idea, are all about. The force of its planetary symbolism still works irrestibly upon the visitor who, passing through the bronze doors into the enclosing rotunda, experiences the awesome reach of its canopied void [p.11].
...[A] domed rotunda is a place where one can partake, symbolically, of the immutable laws and hoped-for tranquility of the universe. There the lower order is united with the higher, the unity of which Hadrian dreamed. A Pantheon is neither sacred nor secular, but a place of man and nature, of man and the forces the ancients called the gods [p. 132].

The following gallery of images is intended to demonstrate the direct and indirect influence of the Pantheon on western architecture. Consider how the form and meaning of the Pantheon are integrated in these later buildings.





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Andrea Palladio, Villa Rotunda, near Vicenza, Italy, c. 1566-1570.
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St. Peter's, Vatican City, Rome: Original Plan: Bramante; Plan redesigned by Michelangelo, 1546-1564; Dome completed by Giacomo della Porta, completed 1590; Facade: Carlo Maderno, 1606-1612.
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Sir Christopher Wren, St. Paul's Cathedral, London, 1675-1710.
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Richard Boyle (earl of Burlington) and William Kent, Chiswick House, near London, begun 1725.
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The Panthéon in Paris designed by Jacques-Germain Soufflot, 1755-1792. When the building was finished, in the midst of the French Revolution, the Constituent Assembly of the Revolution decided by decree to transform the church into a temple to accommodate the remains of the great men of France.
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Drawing of Washington, 1852 with the Capitol as designed by Benjamin Latrobe (1803-1807) and L'Enfant's plan (created 1791). Temple of LibertyBuilding the Capitol for a New Nation
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Alexander Jackson Davis "Interior of the Hall of Representatives," c. 1832-1834
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Lithograph of the campus of the University of Virginia designed by Thomas Jefferson.
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Rotunda of the University of Virginia designed by Thomas Jefferson, 1817-26. The building was originally designed as the university library.
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Jefferson Memorial, Washington D.C.
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National Gallery of Art in Washington. Constructed in the 1930s.
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Florida Supreme Court Building, Tallahassee.